You are using webassets because you care about the performance of your site. For the same reason, you have configured your web server to send out your media files with a so called far future expires header: Your web server sets the Expires header to some date many years in the future. Your user’s browser will never spend any time trying to retrieve an updated version.
Of course, the user’s browser will already use the Etag and Last-Modified/If-Modified-Since to avoid downloading content it has already cached, and if your web server isn’t misconfigured entirely, this will work. The point of far future expires is to get rid of even those requests which would return only a 304 Not Modified response.
What if you actually deploy an update to your site? Now you need to convince the browser to download new versions of your assets after all, but you have just told it not to bother to check for new versions. You work around this by modifying the URL with which the asset is included. There are two distinct ways to so:
Append a version identifier as a querystring:
Add a version identifier to the actual filename:
How webassets helps you do this is explained in the sections below.
Even if you are not using far future expires headers, you might still find webassets expiry features useful to navigate around any funny browser caching behaviour that might require a Shift-reload.
To expire an URL, it is modified with a version identifier. What is this identifier? By default, webassets will create an MD5-hash of the file contents, and use the first few characters as the file version. webassets also allows you to use the last modified timestamp of the file. You can configure this via the versions option:
env = Environment(...) env.versions = 'hash' # the default env.versions = 'hash:32' # use the full md5 hash env.versions = 'timestamp' # use the last modified timestamp
It is generally recommended that you use a hash as the version, since it will remain the same as long as the content does not change, regardless of any filesystem metadata, which can change for any number of reasons.
webassets will automatically add the version as a querystring to the urls it generates, by virtue of the url_expire option defaulting to True. If you want to be explicit:
env = Environment(...) env.url_expire = True
There is nothing else you need to do here. The URLs that are generated might look like this:
However, while the default, expiring with a querystring is not be the best option:
Adding the version as a querystring has two problems. First, it may not always be a browser that implements caching through which we need to bust. It is said that certain (possibly older) proxies do ignore the querystring with respect to their caching behavior.
Second, in certain more complex deployment scenarios, where you have multiple frontend and/or multiple backend servers, an upgrade is anything but instantaneous. You need to be able to serve both the old and the new version of your assets at the same time. See for example how this affects you when using Google App Engine.
To expire using the filename, you add a %(version)s placeholder to your bundle output target:
bundle = Bundle(..., output='screen.%(version)s.css')
The URLs that are generated might look like this:
webassets will use this modified filename for the actual output files it writes to disk, as opposed to just modifying the URL it generates. You do not have to configure your web server to do any rewriting.
This is mostly an advanced feature, and you might not have to bother with it at all.
webassets supports Environment-wide manifests. A manifest remembers the current version of every bundle. What is this good for?
Speed. Calculating a hash can be expensive. Even if you are using timestamp-based versions, that still means a stat-request to your disk.
Note that even without a manifest, webassets will cache the version in memory. It will only need to be calculated once per process. However, if you have many bundles, and a very busy site, a manifest will allow you to both skip calculating the version (e.g. creating a hash), as well as read the versions of all bundles into memory at once.
If you are using automatic building, all of this is mostly not true. In order to determine whether a rebuild is required, webassets will need to check the timestamps of all files involved in any case. It goes without saying that using automatic building on a production site is a convenience feature for small sites, and at odds with counting paper clips in the form of filesystem stat calls.
Making it possible to know the version in the first place.
Depending on your configuration and deployment, consider that it might not actually be possible for webassets to know what the version is.
If you are using a hash-based version, and your bundle’s output target has a placeholder, there is no way to know what the version is, unless is has been written to a manifest during the build process.
The timestamp-based versioning mechanism can actually look at the source files to determine the version. But, in more complex deployments, the source files might not actually be available to read - they might be on a completely different server altogether.
A manifest allows version information to be persisted.
In practice, by default the version information will be written to the cache. You can explicitly request this behaviour be setting the manifest option:
env = Environment(...) env.manifest = 'cache'
In a simple setup, where you are separately building on your local machine during development, and building on the web server for production (maybe via the automatic building feature, enabled by default), this is exactly would you want. Don’t worry about it.
There is a specific deployment scenario where you want to prebuild your bundles locally, and for either of the two reasons above want to include the version data pre-made when you deploy your app to the web server. In such a case, it is not helpful to have the versions stored in the cache. Instead, webassets provides a manifest type that writes all information to a single file:
env = Environment(...) env.manifest = 'file' env.manifest = 'file:/tmp/manifest.to-be-deployed' # explict filename
You can then just copy this one file to the web server, and webassets will know all about the versions without having to consult the media files.
The file is a pickled dict.